Anther concept map.
Topic Postpartum hemorrhage with 1 or 2 references please.

following questions for postpartum hemorrhage to be answered.

Topic Postpartum hemorrhage
1. What is Postpartum hemorrhage
2. Signs and Symptoms
3. Risk Factors
4. Diagnosis (Professor’s feedback for the last concept map- what type of labs!)
5. Treatment (Professor’s feedback for the last concept map- Work on naming medications)
6. Nursing actions or Interventions
Here is your requested concept map on “Postpartum Hemorrhage”:

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Postpartum Hemorrhage
| Definition
| Symptoms
| Risk Factors
| Diagnosis
| Treatment
| Nursing Actions

Excessive bleeding (>500 ml) after childbirth, either within 24 hours (early PPH) or after 24 hours up to 12 weeks (late PPH).

– Vaginal bleeding that soaks a pad in an hour or less
– Rapid heartbeat and/or low blood pressure
– Feeling faint or dizzy
– Abdominal pain or uterine contractions

Risk Factors:
– Previous history of PPH
– Multiparity (giving birth more than once)
– Large baby or multiple gestations
– Prolonged labor or quick delivery
– Retained placenta or uterine rupture
– Pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension

– Clinical assessment (vital signs, blood loss estimation, physical exam)
– Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels
– Coagulation studies (PT, PTT, fibrinogen)
– Blood type and Rh factor
– Ultrasound to check for retained placenta or uterine abnormalities

– Oxytocin, misoprostol, or other uterotonic medications to stimulate uterine contractions and control bleeding
– Blood transfusion or intravenous fluids to replace lost blood volume
– Surgical interventions (uterine artery embolization, balloon tamponade, hysterectomy) in severe cases

Nursing Actions:
– Monitor vital signs, blood loss, and urine output
– Provide emotional support and education to the patient and family
– Administer medications as ordered
– Assist with blood transfusion or surgical interventions as needed
– Promote rest and adequate nutrition

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 194: Postpartum Hemorrhage. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 134(5), e123-e137.
World Health Organization. (2017). WHO Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Postpartum Hemorrhage. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.