The Health Impacts of Exposure to Lead at a Toxic Waste Site in a Marginalized Community
Develop a White Paper of 3000 words taking a position and recommending a policy to address health impacts associated with the exposure to a specific agent located at a toxic waste site associated with a marginalized community in the United States
For this project I will need you to develop a White Paper of 3000 words taking a position and recommending a policy to address health impacts associated with the exposure to a specific agent located at a toxic waste site associated with a marginalized community in the United States. In the White Paper, you will need to address the conflicting concerns regarding health impacts at two points on the biopsychosocial continuum. In most situations there will be both positive and negative impacts. Often socio-economic opportunities and the benefits of overcoming poverty are pitted against the adverse biological health impacts associated with exposure. After you have defined the issues, including the toxicokinetics associated with the exposure, you will want to make a risk assessment of the options. As part of the risk assessment, you will need to review mitigation options at each level of the hierarchy of control. Finally, you will need to take a position on a policy opportunity which addresses the issues you have defined. This policy review should evaluate federal environmental and occupational policies associated with the agents for their impact on public health and health equity.
Examples of topics which can be addressed include local toxic waste sites, chemical plants, transportation centers, COVID-19 and essential workers, or specific agents which impact marginalized workers locally, regionally, nationally, or globally.
The paper should incorporate terms and concepts as follows:
1. Direct, Indirect, and Cumulative Impacts should be incorporated.
2. A description of toxicokinetics of the agent or agents you are focusing on including how the agent enters the body, how it filtered out or absorbed, how it is metabolized and/or absorbed, route of excretion/storage, at least two relevant exposure levels, mitigation options, and prevention options.
3. Evaluate federal environmental and occupational policies associated with the agents for their impact on the public health and health equity.
4. Use of evidence provided by at least four peer reviewed primary research sources.
5. Review of conflicting positions with evidence supporting both positions.
6. Provide full APA citations and references using the 7th edition of the APA Manual.
Additional resources added for your review.
White Paper: The Health Impacts of Exposure to Lead at a Toxic Waste Site in a Marginalized Community
Lead is a toxic heavy metal that has been linked to a number of serious health issues, including cognitive impairment, developmental delays, and kidney damage. Exposure to lead can occur through a variety of routes, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. This paper will focus on the health impacts of exposure to lead at a toxic waste site located in a marginalized community in the United States.
Direct, Indirect, and Cumulative Impacts:
Direct impacts refer to the immediate and observable effects of exposure to lead on an individual’s health. These can include symptoms such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue. Indirect impacts refer to the long-term and less visible effects of exposure, such as cognitive impairment and developmental delays. Cumulative impacts refer to the combined effects of all sources of exposure to lead over time.
Lead enters the body through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Once inside the body, it is filtered out by the liver and kidneys and can be stored in bones and teeth. Lead is not metabolized and is eliminated from the body through urine and feces. Two relevant exposure levels for lead are the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists’ (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air.
Mitigation and Prevention Options:
Mitigation options for exposure to lead include personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and work practice controls. Personal protective equipment includes respirators and protective clothing. Engineering controls include enclosing processes that generate lead dust, using local exhaust ventilation, and substituting less toxic materials. Work practice controls include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands and face before eating and not eating or drinking in lead-contaminated areas.
Prevention options include removing lead-based paint, replacing lead pipes, and reducing the use of lead in products.
Federal Environmental and Occupational Policies:
Federal environmental and occupational policies related to lead include the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Lead in Construction standard. The LCR is a regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act that sets the maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) for lead in drinking water at zero and requires water systems to take steps to reduce lead levels in drinking water. The OSHA Lead in Construction standard sets the PEL for lead in construction work at 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air and requires employers to implement engineering and work practice controls, provide personal protective equipment, and train employees on lead hazards.
Exposure to lead at a toxic waste site located in a marginalized community can have serious and long-term health impacts. It is important to implement mitigation and prevention options to reduce exposure and protect public health. Federal environmental and occupational policies, such as the LCR and OSHA Lead in Construction standard, play an important role in protecting workers and the public from lead exposure. However, more research is needed to fully understand the health impacts of exposure to lead in marginalized communities and to identify effective policy solutions.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2019). Lead Toxicity.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2021