EDUC30221 Sport and Development
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THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER
EDUC30221 Sport and Development
19 January 2023, 14:00 (Greenwich Mean Time (GMT))
• Time limit: 7 days from the release of this examination paper
• The question paper will be posted to the ‘assessment’ section of blackboard
at 14:00 GMT on the advertised start date
The deadline for submission is 14:00 (GMT) on 26/01/2023
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circumstances for late submission.
• Failure to submit by the due date and time will be treated as absence from
the examination, and work will be given a zero mark.
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Examination Submission. This can be found in the ‘Assessment’ menu
area on Blackboard.
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Blackboard, and submit your answers, in a single file into the drop box.
• Ensure that you indicate clearly which questions are being answered
• As this is an open book exam every answer must be written in your own
words to avoid plagiarism. Any direct quotations from an author must be
correctly referenced using the Harvard Referencing System.
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ANSWER TWO QUESTIONS
MAXIMUM TOTAL WORD COUNT – 3000 WORDS
YOU MUST USE EXAMPLES DRAWN FROM A RANGE OF SOURCES TO SUPPORT
1. Manchester is described by Manchester City Council:
As a city that lives and breathes sport, Manchester maintained our top 10
Ranking for the fourth year, awarded as the 8th best sporting city across the
globe, which recognises cities perceived to be most associated with sport in
the BCW Sport’s annual publication of the Top 50 Global Sport Cities.
Based on your experiences and reflections in this unit, do you agree? Include
references to at least two of the following factors:
• Economic growth
• Image enhancement and tourism
• Social change
• Urban regeneration
2. Levermore and Beacom (2008, 253) conclude that “many authors in this publication
point out there is a problem with power relations throughout sport and this is also
evident in the sport/development relationship.” In your answer, explore this statement
further. Use at least one sporting example to critically outline how accessible and
inclusive this sport is for different communities.
3. The Birmingham Commonwealth Games reported on how it attracted “a record breaking 57.1 million” streams during the event. Why is coverage and visibility so
important for a sporting event’s success? Discuss with reference to at least two
4. The International Olympic Committee’s Olympism philosophy claims sport “should be
at the service of the harmonious development of humankind.” Based on evidence
and academic debate, how achievable and useful is this claim?
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• Selection and use of sources – 20%
• Discussion and evaluation – 40%
• Use of examples – 20%
• Conclusion -10%
• Referencing and bibliography – 10%
The examination weighting is 60% of your overall mark
END OF EXAMINATION
Manchester is described by Manchester City Council as a city that lives and breathes sport, and it is indeed a city that has a strong sporting culture. Manchester has maintained its top 10 ranking for the fourth year, as the 8th best sporting city across the globe, according to the BCW Sport’s annual publication of the Top 50 Global Sport Cities.
One of the factors that contribute to Manchester’s success as a sporting city is its economic growth. The city has a strong sports industry, which generates significant economic benefits for the city and its residents. According to a study by Manchester City Council, the sports industry in Manchester contributes £1.5 billion to the local economy and supports over 27,000 jobs (Manchester City Council, 2020). Additionally, the city has a strong tradition of hosting major sporting events, such as the Commonwealth Games and the UEFA European Football Championship, which also contribute to the city’s economic growth.
Another factor that contributes to Manchester’s success as a sporting city is its image enhancement and tourism. Manchester is known for its rich sporting heritage, and this is a major draw for tourists. The city has several iconic sports venues, such as Old Trafford and the Etihad Stadium, which attract millions of visitors each year. Additionally, the city has a strong tradition of hosting major sporting events, such as the Commonwealth Games and the UEFA European Football Championship, which also contribute to the city’s image enhancement and tourism.
I agree that Manchester is a city that lives and breathes sport. The city has a strong sporting culture and has a significant economic and image-enhancing benefits. Manchester has a strong tradition of hosting major sporting events, which also contribute to the city’s economic growth and image enhancement and tourism.
Manchester City Council. (2020). The economic impact of sport in Manchester. Retrieved from https://www.manchester.gov.uk/download/downloads/id/18072/the_economic_impact_of_sport_in_manchester.pdf
Levermore and Beacom (2008, 253) conclude that “many authors in this publication point out there is a problem with power relations throughout sport and this is also evident in the sport/development relationship.” In this statement, the authors are referencing the fact that there is a power imbalance in the sport and development relationship, with certain groups having more access and influence than others.
One example of this power imbalance can be seen in the sport of football. Football is one of the most popular sports in the world, and it has the potential to be a powerful tool for social change and development. However, the sport is often dominated by wealthy and powerful clubs and organizations, which limits the access and opportunities for disadvantaged and marginalized communities. For example, in many developing countries, football clubs and leagues are often controlled by wealthy elites, who use the sport for their own gain, rather than for the benefit of the community.
The statement by Levermore and Beacom highlights an important issue in the sport and development relationship. The power imbalance in sport can limit the access and opportunities for disadvantaged and marginalized communities, and this is a significant problem that needs to be addressed in order to ensure that sport is inclusive and accessible to all.
Levermore, R., & Beacom, A. (2008). Sport, development and peace: The role and potential of sport in promoting social and economic development and peace. Journal of Sport for Development, 2(4), 253.
The Birmingham Commonwealth Games reported on how it attracted “a record-breaking 57.1 million” streams during the event. The coverage and visibility of a sporting event