United States immigration and customs enforcement
In this assignment, you will create a draft of the first five sections of your core Assessment Research Paper including:
Mission and History
Organization Roles and Responsibility
Workforce Overview
Note: This course uses the discussion format for submitting content related to the research proposal. You are not required to post responses. This format allows you to see your classmates topics and resources. It also gives your instructor the opportunity to address issues that may arise after you submit the assignment on Thursday and provide feedback that concerns both individuals or the whole class. You will have the opportunity to make edits suggested by the instructor and resubmit by the Sunday final deadline without penalty to your grade for the assignment. You may find this helpful as your proceed through the course.
Select a DHS-related organizations for your research paper from the list below.
Prepare a draft of each of the the following sections using the outline below:
Mission and History
Organization Roles and Responsibility
Workforce Overview
Your draft of each section should thorough explore the organization using the resources from your annotated bibliography. Remember your final written paper must include at least 2,000 words (approximately 8 pages). Note the title page/cover page and reference page do not count towards the minimum written requirements.
Use the Paper Outline below and include a section in the paper for each section in the outline.
Use APA format with a title page or cover page.
Use a minimum of eight (8) references where one can be your classroom textbook. All citations (both in text and reference page) must be in APA format.
Post the following to the discussion post by Thursday 11:59 pm CT. (You will have the opportunity to make edits suggested by the instructor by the Sunday final deadline without penalty to your grade for the assignment.)
Post the draft of the first five sections in APA format.
Include a Cover Page and References page in APA format .
Address any instructor comments and questions for full credit by Sunday 11:59 pm CT.
Paper Outline
You should have a section in the paper for each of the following:
Introduction. Describe how the organization fits within the Department of Homeland Security. Provide an organizational chart of DHS and the agency you select. Explain how the agency is organized under DHS. Include an org chart. Next explain the DHS-Related organization you are researching is organized.
(Ensure you understand how to read an organizational chart. Just because an agency is listed on the bottom does not mean it is subservient to boxes above it; one must follow the solid lines to understand chain of command/authority.)
Mission and History. Describe the mission and scope of the organization. Identify through a brief synopsis of the organizational history how the organization became part of DHS.
Organization. Discuss the organization using a chart or other graphical depiction. Illustrate how this subordinate organization is aligned within the Department of Homeland Security.
Roles and Responsibility. Discuss the various roles and responsibilities of the organization and how those roles and responsibilities support the overall Department of Homeland Security mission and objectives.
Workforce Overview. Distinguish facts germane to the organization to include total number of employees, training, critical or unique skills, and additional facts that provide a substantive overview of the workforce.
Leadership. Construct an overview of the existing leadership to include how their background and skills support their existing appointment or fail to support their existing appointment.
Organizational Highlights. Assess some organizational highlights that show how the organizational strategies and initiatives are effective or ineffective at carrying out their existing mission.
Challenges. Distinguish and describe organizational challenges, to include legal and operational, that mire their responsibilities and what the organization is performing to overcome those obstacles in the future.
Intelligence and Armed Forces Application. Assess how the organization interacts with the intelligence community and Armed Forces to supplement, strengthen, or perform their daily responsibilities.
Conclusion. Wrap up the paper with you final thought on the role this organization plays in the grand scheme of homeland security. What conclusions have you come to as to its relevance to homeland security? Does this organization have a role to play in the future? What recommendations do you have for changes to the organization? (You will be able to use some of this information from the conclusion in your final assignment in Unit
United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement
The Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the single most prominent part of the DHS and the second most significant investigative part of the federal government. This is because it is responsible for upholding about four hundred statutes that concern foreigners and trade. The DHS serves under the ICE to ensure that activities are conducted per the constitution and there are no illegal activities, some of the divisions the DHS is concerned with are National Security Investigations Division, Mission Support, International Affairs, Intelligence, National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center and Domestic Operations, through scrutinizing these activities the DHS is able to intervene in ICE operations and check the people and goods that pass through the border (Borderpatroledu, 2019. With these rights, the DHS can carry out its mandate to serve and protect the people of America by filtering the activities done at the Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

The ICE mostly deals with investigating violations and how they are handled according to customs laws. Like any law enforcement agency, they have search and seizure authority and can use probable cause or reasonable suspicion to carry out these activities. If a gallery, individual, or institution is suspected of owning illegal material, the ICE will search and hold onto evidence. The enforcement is made up of both agents and counsel since they have to work per the law. They are composed of 63 offices in 44countries who are considered as ICE Attache Officers (Luke, 2010). These officers provide information on activities to assist the Special Agents who are on the ground ready to apprehend offenders. Through this organizational structure, it is easy for the ICE to be active and help the DHS to achieve their goals.
Mission and History
The purpose of ICE evolves around four things which are: professional development of individuals, benchmarking on a cross-institutional level, program accreditation, and promotion of programs that are ICE-accredited. As a law enforcement agency under the DHS they also work towards the prevention of terrorism by targeting the content and people that support criminals and acts of terrorism. Within the organization, they hope to develop their methods of achieving their goals through constant learning. This is because criminals are ever-advancing and looking for new ways to beat the system. However, the ICE hopes that through learning from different institutions and applying accredited knowledge, they will be at par with terrorists and achieve their mission to prevent terror within America.
It was in March 2003 that the DHS saw the need to create a division that would be dedicated to the war on terror by managing the borders. This ould be the most extensive single government reorganization after the department of defense. That is how the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement came to be the ICE. The agendas and goals of the Bureau would then be changes and restrategized to fit the newly branded system, ICE. It was time that America took charge of its land by enforcing serious defense measures on all angles since the 9/11 incident had changed how people viewed their security system. Congress granted ICE both civil and criminal authorities without many limits so that they would take charge and prevent any incoming threat through the borders. With an annual budget of more than $6billion, the ICE has more than 20,000 law enforcement officers in over 400 global offices (ICE, 2019). With this ability, the ICE can fulfill its mission to uphold homeland security through the enforcement of laws that govern customs, trade, immigration, and border control.

The organizational structure for the ICE is headed by an executive associate director, whereby it is divided into two directories: the Department of Homeland Security and the Enforcement and Removal Operations. These directories are then headed by a director who answers to the executive director. The divisions within each directorate have their agendas and are mostly involved in investigation, security services, and interdiction. At the lower levels, the ICE is integrated through operations, programs, mission support, international affairs, intelligence and National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center (DHS, 2019). These authorities come directly from the executive director whereby they are performed to enhance the effectiveness of the ICE.

Roles and Responsibility
The ICE ensures that America is protected from several threats posed by foreign nationals by taking charge as their primary role. They can do this by preventing terrorism and enhancing security, protecting national borders from illicit trade and travel, protecting the borders through smart interior enforcements, and constructing an efficient and competent agency. Through prevention, the ICE exercises regulated entry, removal of threats, and support of fellow law enforcement when they report relevant cases. To protect the border, the ICE has been able to break up smuggling of aliens, target child trafficking, and dismantle cross-border cartels. Through these activities, the ICE aligns with the DHS to protect the integrity of the immigration system.
ICE responsibilities are made possible if the agency realigns the duties to identify, investigate, apprehend, prosecute, and deport foreigners who may pose a threat. The agency should also build a workforce that understands its goals and is devoted to attaining them. Moreover, ICE should promote its mission and success through making the department, media, other law enforcements, and public know of their existence and aims. Another of their objectives include using their resources wisely where they have a full understand of how policy decisions influence their resource needs. By straightening their internal operations, the ICE believes it will be able to perform better.

Workforce Overview
ICE Agents make the foundation that the whole agency runs on hence the importance of the department choosing their employees wisely based on their skills and training them every often. Depending on the workforce they put in, the future of the unit relies on the recruiting period and the support of the department after that. These agents should have been involved in customs issues or immigration issues before they are assigned to the tasks about the ICE (Magdalena, 2014). Such duties include border patrol, trafficking, intelligence, or even cybercrimes. The workforce will be expected to adhere to specific tasks where some officers are expected to inspect documents, cargo, or other material. They also require skills in handling illegal immigrants, foreign criminals, and carrying out the deportation process. The organization must uphold the requirements when dealing with such people hence the need for training.
Once an agent is hired, they undergo training to ensure they are at par with the protocols of law enforcement in general and the ICE. There are two examinations the new officer is expected to pass, and they are the primary law enforcement training program, then a five-week Spanish language training program. With the help of these skills, the agents can intercept Spanish messages, communicate with Spanish nationals and immigrants. The agent will also gain specialized skills in first aid, firearms, and driving maneuvers. After the training, the agent is expected to do the Physical Abilities Assessment and seven written examinations. Currently, there are 20,000 ICE Agents (Kerrigan, 2018). All these agents passed the tests and were assigned titles from HIS Agent, ICE Agent, Detention and Deportation Officer, Immigration Investigator, or ICE Criminal Investigator.

However, there is a downside to some of the leadership in the ICE since there have been complaints among the public to put an end to the ICE. Given the effects that Immigration and Customs Enforcement raids or detention may have on children, there calls for a need to give attention to affected parties (McLeigh, 2010). This is because children are sensitive and may be exposed to multiple risk factors. Since the ICE operates on the objectives of preventing terrorism and apprehending criminals, they give little room to children who may be running away in search of a better life. Some of the children may be put in detention as well if they are found to belong to illegal immigrants. The question of whether minors have rights when caught by the ICE is still un-confronted by the leaders of these raids. Their skills and background fail to support their existing environment since they put children in the way of harm, which is a means of promoting terrorism. The subsequent raids as well could be viewed as an act of terror when the affected individuals happen to have proper documentation for the US.
There have also been complaints that the ICE does not know what it was created to do as there is no clear documentation that thoroughly explains their purpose. This leaves their leadership wavering as they are expected to develop an institutional foundation large enough to be a news organization. The lack of documentation has affected the existing appointment of those involved in the running of the department. Initially, the ICE was meant to scrutinize foreigners and control borders. However, it has become what is known as a ‘deportation machine.’ From the 20,000 ICE Agencies, only 6,000 of them carry out the task as stated in the original mission, a clear indication of unstable leadership.

Organizational Highlights
The organizational strategies are both practical and ineffective to some extent. Useful because their agenda on deportation has worked out. The ICE has partnered with contractors who set up detention camps to hold illegal immigrants as they await their deportation. Some of the fields have over 40,000, making this the main focus of the ICE. Ineffective because some States such as Texas have proven to resist to the ICE and support local immigrants. This is because the organizational initiatives set to throw out immigrants who had been in America even before the 9/11 bombing. The State of Texas views the strategies of the ICE to be militant as they do not consider their effects on immigrant families. Some advocates are fighting for decriminalization and integration policies where immigrant cases are considered in an ethical manner (Allen, 2019). The main issue with eth organizational strategy is that it leans more towards one agenda while neglecting the others, making it seem like they have a plan against the minorities, an issue that has been used to criticize the ICE.

Legally, studies have shown that policies at multiple levels may affect the health of all people, including immigrants. When there are criminalization policies, immigrants are usually afraid to seek the medical attention they need since they will be scared of getting caught. The ICE was designed to address policies at the state and federal levels. However, these policies have infiltrated the local level, and places like hospitals have measures against treating individuals with unknown national status. In such cases, the local authorities look the other side and fail to cooperate with the ICE. Hence, the ICE cannot get to illegal foreigners through the help of hospitals fully. There is the need for federal immigration reform policies and welcoming state policies to move away from the local focus which may not be a threat to the country.
The operational challenges that mire the responsibilities of ICE Agents revolve around their operations and focus, as said earlier. As long as there is no full documentation of the ICE, the organization will have a hard time creating a balance in its operations. As most of its agents sway from the main objectives, the ICE will focus more on one agenda after the other.

Intelligence and Armed Forces Application
With the ICE Agents stationed in offices on a global level, there is increased intelligence since the department can learn information from all corners of the world. Information is gathered on illegal trade, financial activity, or travel and shared with the field operatives. In cases where raids are conducted, Armed Forces may be used to assist with capturing the illegal foreigners. If at all there is a possible terrorist threat, the ICE could integrate the use of Armed forces to intervene. Through these initiatives, the ICE is more effective since it has the information and workforce it needs.

The ICE is quite relevant to DHS despite their individual goals lacking proper direction. As a department that was formed from the Bureau of Immigration, it is challenging for the ICE to achieve its aims of preventing terror since they lack proper documentation. However, with guidance and clear targets, it is possible that the department could play a vital role in future where they ethically control immigration. Rather than focusing on deportation with most of their assets, it would be better to focus on the immigrants that may cause real threats.

Annotated Bibliography
Kerrigan, M. (2018). Customs and Border Protection. Broomall, Pennsylvania: National Highlights Inc. Retrieved from
The ICE, the second of the three new agencies formed when the INS dissolved, is the agency tasked with enforcing border control, customs, trade, and immigration. As of 2016, the ICE had more than 20,000 employees in more than 400 offices across the United States and 46 countries outside the United States. With an annual budget of more than $6 billion, the ICE has been organized into four directorates. The two leading directorates are Enforcement and Removal Operations and Homeland Security Investigations. The other two directorates, Management and Administration and the Office of the Principal Legal Advisor, support the leading directorates. On an average day at the ICE, the agency makes 279 criminal alien arrests, including 4 human traffickers; 645 aliens are removed from the country, and more than 2,900 pounds of illegal narcotics are seized.

McLeigh, J. D. (2010). How do Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) practices affect the mental health of children? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(1), 96–100.
Given the effects that Immigration and Customs Enforcement raids and subsequent detention could have on children who are already subject to multiple risk factors, there is good reason to draw attention to the needs of this particularly vulnerable population and to recommend efforts and practices that could mitigate the risk to children. Better evidence is needed to guide policy and practice. Federal support should be provided for research to illuminate the short- and long-term consequences of particular policies, such as specific enforcement practices.
Allen, C. D. (2019). Toward Evidence-Based Policies and Programs That Promote Immigrant Well-Being. American Journal of Public Health, 109(9), 1177–1178.
An editorial is provided in which the author discusses U.S. evidence-based government policies that try to improve immigrant well-being, including regarding Texas anti-immigration laws that mandates local cooperation with the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency. U.S. policies on immigrant deportation and immigrants’ rights are discussed.

Magdalena, M. (2014). Immigration Inspections and Enforcement at and Between Ports of Entry. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from
Travelers seeking to enter the United States go through one to three steps in the immigration inspection process. In the first step, prior to travel, most travelers who are not U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents (LPRs) must apply for permission to enter the United States, by obtaining a visa at a U.S. consulate abroad or through the Visa Waiver Program. Air travelers are subject to additional screening prior to arrival (see ―Pre-Travel Screening‖). Second, allarriving travelers are subject to inspection (or preclearance) by a CBPofficer prior to entering the United States (see ―Primary Inspections‖). Third, some passengers also may be selected through risk-based screening or at random for more intensive scrutiny (see ―Secondary Inspections and Immigration Enforcement‖). Participants in CBP‘s trusted traveler programs volunteer for additional screening in advance and thereby become eligible for expedited processing at POEs(see ―Trusted Traveler Programs‖). Most foreign nationals seeking to enter the United States must get permission to do so prior to travel, and are subject to pre-travel screening. With the exception of U.S. LPRs, 31certain Canadian citizens,32and certain residents of Caribbeanislandsother than Cuba,33foreign nationals seeking admission to the United States must apply in advance for a nonimmigrant visa34at a U.S. consulate abroad (see ―ConsularReviews‖), or in certain cases Border Security: Immigration Inspections at Port of Entry9through an on-lineprocess for permission to participate in the U.S. Visa Waiver Program(see ―Visa Waiver Program‖). Air passengers are subject to further screening at several points during the lead-up to their U.S.-bound flights(see ―Air Passenger Screening‖).Consular Reviews35Before applying for admission at a U.S. port of entry, aliens seeking to visit the United Statesgenerally must obtain a visa at a U.S. consulate abroad. Visa applicants are required to submit biographic and biometric data, and usually must participate in an in-person interview. Applicants also may be subject to physical and mental examinations. Consular reviews are designed to ensure that aliens do not receive a visa to visit the United States if they are inadmissiblefor any of the reasons identified in INA §212, including health-related grounds, criminal history, securityand terrorist concerns, indigence (likely to become a public charge), seeking to work without proper labor certification, ineligibility for citizenship, and certain previous immigrationviolations.As part of the visa application process, DOS consular officers use the Consular Consolidated Database (CCD) to screen visa applicants. The CCD is a databaseof over 100 million visa and passport case records and 75 million photographsfrom 25 different DOS systems.36The CCD links automatically to the Consular Lookout and Support System (CLASS) database, which consular officers use to identify visa applicants on securitywatchlists or with other derogatory information, and to the Arrival and Departure Information System (ADIS) and the Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT), which CBPofficers use to screen arriving travelers at POEs

Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (2019, February 25). Retrieved October 26, 2019, from
The mission of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is to protect America from the cross-border crime and illegal immigration that threaten national security and public safety.

What is ICE – Immigration and Customs Enforcement? (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2019, from
Among its primarily roles, ICE ensures the defense and security of the United States through the identification, investigation, apprehension, prosecution and deportation of foreign nationals that pose a threat of any kind to U.S. national security. ICE plays a critical role in detecting and preventing terrorist activities, including attack preparations, communications, financial support, and entry to the U.S. The National Security Division of ICE oversees many of the anti-terrorism operations conducted through ICE offices and works closely with other agencies like the Federal Bureau of Investigations.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement has taken a lead position in disrupting and eliminating terrorist cells and networks operating in the country. Using law enforcement tools provided by legislation and executive orders, ICE can target criminals and potential terrorists and detain them for prosecution or deportation proceedings.

Allen, C. D. (2019). Toward Evidence-Based Policies and Programs That Promote Immigrant Well-Being. American Journal of Public Health, 109(9), 1177–1178.
Borderpatroledu. (2019).What is ICE – Immigration and Customs Enforcement? (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2019, from
DHS. (2019). Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (2019, February 25). Retrieved October 26, 2019, from
Kerrigan, M. (2018). Customs and Border Protection. Broomall, Pennsylvania: National Highlights Inc. Retrieved from
Luke, C. (2010). Understanding the US. Border: Archeologists, Law Enforcement, and The Preservation of Cultural Heritage. Retrieved from
ICE. (2019). History. Retrieved from
Magdalena, M. (2014). Immigration Inspections and Enforcement at and Between Ports of Entry. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from
McLeigh, J. D. (2010). How do Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) practices affect the mental health of children? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(1), 96–100.