HR4S02 (Full time) and HR4S02A (part time)
HRM and Strategy in a Business Context (Core Module)
Welcome to the module I hope you will find the module enjoyable and stimulating.
The aim of this booklet is to provide you with some detail about the module.
Module Leader

Alternative contacts:
If you would like confidential help and advice on anything, from your studies to a personal
matter you can talk to:
The Advice Shop is where Student Achievement Co-ordinators can be located… one
wants to have use such facilities but they are here to help you………. use them if you have
the need.
Human resource (HR) professionals and managers operate within increasingly complex and
changing organisational and contextual circumstances, whether in the market, public or
‘third’ sectors and whatever the size of their organisations or the types of goods or services
these enterprises produce for their customers or clients globally.
Thismodule provideslearners,first, with an understanding of the historic roots and
development of the concept, theories and models of HRM, before going on to examine the
principal internal and external environmental contexts of contemporary organisations,
including the managerial and business context, within which managers,HRprofessionalsand
workersinteractinconditions ofenvironmentalturbulence, changeanduncertainty.The
module will also examine comparative HRM frameworks internationally. Second, the module
examines how those leading organisations respond to these dynamic environmental
contexts. Third,the module indicates how leaders in organisations, and those in the HR
function, and line managers with HR responsibilities, need to recognise and acknowledge that
corporate decisions andHRchoicesarenotalwaysshapedbymanagersalone.
They are also shaped by internal and external forces beyond theirimmediate control. Having
studied this module, learners will be aware that managers and HR professionalsin different
types of organisation (small, large, national, global), in responding to their internal, business
and external environmental contexts, not only have opportunities and choices when taking
organisational andHRdecisions but also face some constraints on their autonomy in
determining their futures. Thismodule exploresthe implicationsfor professional practice and
provides opportunities for applied learning and continuous professional development.
Module Content
Understand, analyse and critically evaluate how organisational and HR strategies are shaped
by and developed in response to internal and external environmental factors globally.
Debates about strategy; the rational approach to strategy; emergent and other approaches
to strategy; tools and techniques of environmental analysis; formulating and implementing
strategy; internal and external constraints on strategy; shaping the external environment;
the emergence of HR strategy; approaches to the development of HR strategy, such as best
practice, best-fit and the resource-based view of the firm; horizontal and vertical integration;
debates about effective strategic leadership; implications and impacts on organisations and
HR practices.
Understand, analyse and critically evaluate contemporary organisations and their principal
environments. Perspectives on organisations; types, objectives and the components of
organisation; managerial, internal and external environments; organisational stakeholders;
theories of organisations; the search for performance, profit and efficiency; old and new
organisational forms; the factors influencing structures, processes and boundaries in
organisations; integration, control and HR issues; boundary-crossing, networking and
strategic alliances; continuity and change in organisations; corporate governance and
accountability, including business ethics and corporate social responsibility; implications and
impacts on organisations, HR strategy and HR practices, especially for sustainable
Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the managerial and business environment within
which HR professionals work. Management, managing and managerial functions within
organisations; power, authority and influence; the search for managerial legitimacy; the
finance, marketing, operations and strategic management functions; risk analysis; customer
care; quality management; performance management; models and roles of the HR function;
forces shaping the HR agenda; the HR equation in relation to work, reward, job satisfaction
and the psychological contract; the politics of management and the change agenda;
implications and impacts on organisations and HR strategy and HR practices.
Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the market and competitive environments or
organisations and how organisational leaders and the HR function respond to them.
Structure and workings of market economies; macro-economic policy including monetary,
fiscal and taxation policy; determinants of supply and demand in the marketplace; public
management and administrative reform; sources of competitive advantage; organisational
responses to competition and hyper-competition; elements of the financial system; labour
markets and the changing nature of work and employment; implications and impacts on
organisations, HR strategy and HR practices.
Understand, analyse and critically evaluate globalisation and international forces and how
they shape and impact on organisational and HR strategies and HR practices. The nature and
origins of globalisation; the factors influencing globalisation; the consequences of
globalisation; critiques of globalisation; organisational, governmental and intergovernmental
responses to globalisation; the European Union; mixed and micro-political approaches;
major international organisations; multinational corporations and the local and global
market; culturalist and institutional approaches; implications and impacts on organisations,
HR strategy and HR practices.
Understand, analyse and critically evaluate International demographic, social and
technological trends and how they shape and impact on organisational strategies and HR
practices. Determinants of population trends; the working population; immigration and
employment of migrant workers, work permits; international comparisons; family
structures; gender, ethnicity and diversity in organisations and society; social stratification;
public services and changing social values; individualism, consumerism and secularism;
developments in technology; information and communication in organisational and
economic life; implications and impacts on organisations, HR strategy and HR practices.
Understand, analyse and critically evaluate government policy and legal regulation and how
these shape and impact on organisational and HR strategies and HR practices. Economic and
industrial policy; social policy, education and training policy; EU institutions and economic
and social policy; comparisons of party policies and legislative programmes; political
institutions and democratic incrementalism; how organisations influence public and
intergovernmental policy; forms and extent of legal regulation, including employment
legislation; implications and impacts on organisation, HR strategy and HR practices.
(This module is mapped to the following CIPD unit(s):
7 HRC – Human Resource Management in Context)
Learning Outcomes
1. Learners will be able to identify and critically evaluate the external and internal
environmental factors of contemporary organisations, including Global and
international forces and competitive and market environments and the potential
implications for organisations.
2. Developing an understanding of how environmental analysis can be used by the
organisations leadership to inform and identify a range of organisational and HR
strategies and responses to deal appropriately with complex issues internationally.
Assessment Requirements
There is one assignment accounting for 100% of your marks:
The assignment will be split into two elements both of which are individual assessments:
Element one will be by way of a 15 minute presentation and element two will require a
3,600 word journal article , both elements will address the following question:
Marchington, (2015), wrote that ‘HRM was too busy looking up to see where it was going’,
Dundon and Rafferty (2018), have contemplated ‘the potential demise of HRM’, Saundry,
Fisher and Kinsey, (2021), opined on a ‘Disconnected human resource’. Explore, by way of a
critical review, what appears to have gone wrong recently with with HRM? You will then
make supported recommendations, on how HRM could be improved in both theory and
practice in a given setting, with a view to improving both organisational efficiency and social
The deadline for the presentation will be Friday April 30th 2022 and the deadline for the
article will be Friday 6
th May, 2022.
You will direct message me your presentation on Microsoft Teams and upload your
reference list to Turnitin.
The journal article will be submitted via Turnitin only.
Faculty of Business and Society Marking Criteria for Postgraduate Assessments
Grade Relevance Knowledge Analysis Argument and
Presentation Reference to
86 –
The work examined is exemplary and provides clear evidence of a complete grasp of the knowledge, understanding and skills
appropriate to the level of the qualification. There is also ample excellent evidence showing that all the learning outcomes and skills
appropriate to that level are fully satisfied. The work is exemplary in all the categories shown above and demonstrates a particularly
compelling evaluation, originality, and elegance of argument, interpretation or discourse.
76-85% The work examined is outstanding and demonstrates comprehensive knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the level of the
qualification. There is also excellent evidence showing that all the learning outcomes and skills appropriate to that level are fully
satisfied. The work is outstanding in the majority of the categories shown above or demonstrates particularly compelling evaluation and
elegance of argument, interpretation or discourse.
70 –
The work examined is excellent and is evidence of comprehensive knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the level of the
qualification. There is also excellent evidence showing that all the learning outcomes and skills appropriate to that level are satisfied.
The work will be excellent in the majority of the categories shown above or demonstrates particularly compelling evaluation and
elegance of argument, interpretation or discourse.
60 –
relevant to the
of the
A substantial
knowledge of
showing a clear
grasp of
questions and
issues therein
ve analysis –
clear and
Well supported,
focussed argument
which is clear and
logically structured.
distinctive or
thinking; and
begins to
formulate an
position in
relation to theory
and/or practice.
Well written,
with standard
spelling and
grammar, in a
readable style
with acceptable
Critical appraisal of
up-to-date and/or
Recognition of
perspectives. Very
good use of a wide
range of
sophisticated source
50 –
A reasonable
attempt to
address the
of the
may drift away
knowledge of a
fair range of
material, with
evidence of an
which has a
clear purpose
Generally coherent
and logically
structured, using an
appropriate mode of
It will contain
some distinctive
or independent
thinking; may
begin to
formulate an
written, with
only minor
lapses from
grammar, with
Uses a good variety
of literature which
includes recent texts
and/or appropriate
literature, including a
reasonable amount
of material that goes
from this in
less focused
appreciation of
its significance
position in
relation to theory
and/or practice.
format beyond library texts.
Competent use of
source material.
40 –
with the
of the
but there is a
degree of
of the subject
but addressing
a limited range
of material
but may be
prone to
or to
which lacks
Some attempt to
construct a coherent
argument, but may
suffer loss of focus
and consistency.
Work which
expresses a
coherent position
only in broad
terms and in
conformity to one
or more standard
views of the topic
A simple basic
style but with
deficiencies in
expression or
format that
may pose
obstacles for
the reader
Evidence of use of
literature which goes
beyond that referred
to by the tutor.
Frequently only uses
a single source to
support a point.
Weak use of
35 –
Relevance to
of the
may be very
and may be
reduced to its
vaguest and
A limited
of a narrow
range of
descriptive or
with little
evidence of
A basic argument is
evident, but there is
a lack of clarity and
Some evidence of
a view starting to
be formed but
mainly derivative.
deficiencies in
expression and
the writer may
achieve clarity
(if at all) only by
using a
simplistic or
repetitious style
Barely adequate use
of literature. Over
reliance on
material provided by
the tutor.
The evidence provided shows that the majority of the learning outcomes and skills appropriate to that Level are satisfied.
30 –
The work examined provides insufficient evidence of the knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the Level of the
qualification. The evidence provided shows that some of the learning outcomes and skills appropriate to that Level are satisfied. The
work will be weak in some of the indicators.
0-29% The work examined is unacceptable and provides little or no evidence of the knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the
Level of the qualification. The evidence shows that few if any of the learning outcomes and skills appropriate to that Level are satisfied.
The work will be weak in the majority or all of the indicators.
Strategic HRM4 S02 – Assessment Sheet
Presentation and defence
Title: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Presenters ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Assessor: ………………………………………………………….. Time Allowed / Taken …………………………..
Area Assessed Comments
Presentation, Delivery and
Familiarity with material,
co-ordination. Quality and
Appropriateness of
Skills: Concise and effective
Content / Knowledge
Evidence of understanding
of subject area,
demonstration of
comprehensive knowledge,
understanding and skills.
Skills: managing and
Developing Self
and Synthesis
Evidence of scope of
secondary sources,
Comprehensive inter relation of the theory with
the practice. Detailed and
insightful analysis of the
assessment subject area
focus. Identification of the
key issues and driving
forces. Critical evaluation
of theoretical models,
situation / issues discussed.
Skill: managing Tasks and
Critical Thinking and
Problem Solving
Conclusion and Defence
Threading, with a logical
General Comments
Overall Grade …………… %
Reading List
Essential Reading
Boxall, P. and Purcell, J. (2016) Streategy and Human Resource Management: Third Edition
(Management, Work and Organisations). Palgrave Macmillan
Farnham, D. (2010) Human Resource management in Context: Strategy, Insights and
Solutions. London: CIPD
Worthington, I and Britton, C. (2015) The Business Environment (7th Edition) Harlow: Pearson
Kew, J. and Stredwick, J. (2013) Human Resource Management in a Business context.
London: CIPDBach, S. & Sisson, K. (2003). Personnel Management: A Comprehensive Guide to
Theory and Practice (3rd ed.). Malden, Mass: Blackwell.
Recommended Reading
Begg, D. and Ward, D. (2012) Economics for business. 4th edn. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill
Higher Education.
Beardwell, I. & Claydon, L. (2010) Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach
(6th ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.
Boxall, P. & Purcell, J. (2011). Strategy and Human Resource Management (3rd ed.).
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Brewster, C. Mayrhofer, W. and Morley, M. (2004) HRM in Europe: evidence of convergence.
Cable, V. (2009) The storm: the world economic crisis and what it means. London: Atlantic
Cohen, R. and Kennedy P. (2007) Global sociology. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan
Crowther, D. and Green, M. (2008) Organisational theory. Jaico Publishing.
Daft, R. (2006) The new era of management. Mason, OH: South-Western
Desjardin, J. (2007) Business, ethics and the environment: Imagining a sustainable future.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall
Grant, R. (2013) Contemporary Strategy Analysis: Text and Cases. John Wiley and Sons
Heywood, A. (2011) Essentials of UK Politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hughes, O. and O’Neill, D. (2008) Business, government and globalisation: an international
perspective. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Kandola, G. (2009) The value of difference: eliminating bias in organisations. Oxford: Pearn
Marchington, M. and Wilkinson, A. (2012) Human Resource Management at Work. London:
May, S; Cheney, G. and Roper, J. (eds) The debate over corporate responsibility. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Moss, G. (ed) (2010) Profiting from Diversity: The Business Advantages and the Obstacles to
Achieving Diversity. London: Palgrave MacMillan
Rollinson, D. (2008) Organisational behaviour and analysis: an integrated approach. Harlow:
Financial Times Prentice hall
Roper, I; Prouska, R. and Ayudhya, U. (2010) Critical Issues in Human Resource Management.
London CIPD
Rees, G. and Smith, P.(2014) Strategic Human Resource management: An International
Perspective.London: Sage
Taylor, S. (2011) Contemporary Issues in Human Resource Management. London: CIPD
Taylor, S. (2012) Employment Law: an introduction. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University
Wetherly, P. and Otter, D. (2014) The Business Environment. Themes and Issues in a
Globalising World. Oxford University Press
Key Journals
Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management Journal
International Journal of Human Resource Management
Intercontinental Journal of Human Resource Management
Human resource Management Review
Personnel Review
Work, Employment and Society
New Technology work and Employment
European Journal of Industrial relations
Economic and labour relations review
British Journal of Industrial Relations
Industrial & labour Relations Review
Industrial Relations: A Journey of Economy and Society
Industrial Relations Journal
Expert HR (available through the subject guide and library of the University of South Wales)
Assignments are a key component of the assessment of your studies but many assignments
that contain good thoughts and ideas are ruined (and get less marks) because of basic
preparation and writing errors. The following are some tips on the mechanics of writing
assignments. These should always be read in conjunction with other instructions given by
your lecturers. If you are having problems ASK FOR HELP early rather than the day or the
week before an assignment is due.
For ease of handling for the marker, follow the instructions given. In addition, Please
▪ Use only black ink on white paper.
▪ Do not use wallets (save your money)
▪ Use a 12 pt font at 1.5 line spacing that can be easily read (Times New Roman is usual).
▪ Spell check your work and proof-read for editing and grammar mistakes.
▪ Use appropriate referencing, following conventions suggested below.
Sentence Structure and Punctuation
Some sentence constructions frequently cause problems. These problems are discussed
a) Capitalisation
There is a tendency to use capital letters when they are not required. Only use
capitals at the start of a sentence or for the names of people and organisations.
E.g. …the Civil Rights Movement… becomes …the civil rights movement….
b) Spacing
As a rule, all items of punctuation should have one space after them, except
punctuation that ends sentences (for example full stops). These items of punctuation
have two spaces after them.
• Note that this spacing rules do not apply to brackets
• The two spaces after full stops also apply in reference lists after the author’s
c) Exclamation marks (!)
The use of exclamation marks in academic writing is very rare, but when you do use
them make sure that you only use one – students often use double exclamation
marks at the end of a sentence to indicate intensity but this is unnecessary and
generally considered rude by academics.
d) Colons (:)
Colons are often used to introduce a quote, a list of items, or to separate clauses in a
sentence when the second enlarges or explains the first. Remember that colons
never end a sentence so you should not capitalise the next word and you should not
put a space between the colon and the word ahead of it.
e) Apostrophes ( ’ )
Apostrophes can be used in two ways – first as a contraction where part of a word is
left out or where two words run together to form one word, or second, to denote
As a contraction
It is very rare to use contractions in academic writing, as they are not normally
considered to be formal enough for the genre. If you do feel the need to use a
contraction, make sure that you have got it right.
e.g. Do not becomes don’t.
Indicating Possession
Where the noun normally ends with a S you have a choice of either adding an
apostrophe, or an apostrophe and a S to the end of the noun.
e.g. Mike Davis’ desk …….. or Mike Davis’s desk……….
Where a noun does not end with a S and is singular, add apostrophe –S to the word.
e.g. Jane Noon’s bag …..
Where a noun does not normally end in a S and is plural, add S-apostrophe to the
e.g. The books’ covers ……..
Where the noun changes when it is plural, an apostrophe-s is appropriate.
e.g. The children’s dinner ……
Answering an assignment
There may be a number of types of assignment set by lecturers in the Business School. As a
general rule, when answering assignments you will need to write in an appropriate academic
style. Suggestions about how to approach specific types of assignments are listed on the
following pages, but further instruction will be available from lecturers:
An essay is a piece of work in which you are asked to discuss and analyse a subject or
present an argument. When approaching an essay, it is important that you read the
question carefully as many essays often fail to answer the question asked.
If you are uncertain what is required of you, discuss the question with your tutor or marker.
As interim assistance, there are common ways that lecturers phrase essay questions that
give an insight into they type of discussion they would like to see:
a) Discuss/Consider:
Explore a range of ideas and points of view on the topic. Note and outline the
strengths and weaknesses of the points of view you have discussed. Be thorough in
your review of the subject and be as balanced in your discussion as is possible.
b) Compare/Contrast:
These two words belong to the same analytical process. If you are asked to compare,
emphasise the similarities between two things; if you are asked to contrast,
emphasise the differences. If you are asked to both compare and contrast, discuss
both the similarities and differences with equal weighting.
c) Assess/Evaluate/Comment:
In this instruction, you are being asked to determine the impact or importance of
something. You are required to weigh up the evidence and give a considered opinion
or judgement.
d) Summarise/Outline/Describe/Explain/Define:
You are required to select and discuss the main features or points, to give an
overview of events or development and often, to précis something. Give a clear,
well-organised account or outline. Attempt to make difficult concepts
understandable. You might need to discuss the development of the issue or topic.
e) Demonstrate/Illustrate:
Using reasoning or statements of evidence, you are required to prove something.
You may be required to apply a theory or model to demonstrate an application.
f) Criticise/Critique/Examine/Critically Discuss:
Inspect closely, investigate and question the multiple aspects of a perspective,
statement, point of view, position or argument. Note that for academics to criticise
something does not mean looking exclusively at the negative aspects of the issue.
You should look at the topic with reasoned inquiry, accepting nothing at face value.
g) Argue:
Set out a case for a particular point of view. Use reasoning and evidence to set out a
discussion aimed at convincing the reader of something. Anticipate flaws in the case
and address them before your argument is undermined.
Reports are designed to be informative and factual, they are empirical focused rather than
creative. They are often minimalist in terms of content and use a specific numbered-section
format, which aids in the presentation of a large volume of material in a small word count.
Book reviews:
For a book review, you will probably be asked to pretend that you are preparing the review
for a journal. Look at the journal concerned or others in the same discipline and match the
style and approach of the published book reviews published in these journals. Check the
style guide included in the back of the journal concerned and match the style that you would
be expected to produce in order to be published.
Journal assignments:
In this type of assignment, you will be asked to look at a number of articles from journals.
Journals are collections of academic articles that are normally published every two or three
months. These types of publication are easy to identify because they normally have the
word journal in the title, but if you have any difficulty finding appropriate material there is
help available from the librarians. In a journal assignment you are normally required to
discuss several articles using a critical approach. This means that you will need to outline,
discuss and critique the point of view presented by the authors in the published items.
Remember that critical approaches do not mean looking exclusively at the negative aspects.
Harvard Referencing Guidelines for Business School faculty undergraduate students at the
University of South Wales.
Academic work; essays, assignments, projects, dissertations and so on should always include
references. When you have used facts, data or opinion from another source, that is
somebody else’s work, you must acknowledge it by using a reference (sometimes called a
citation). This includes direct quotations or paraphrasing (using your own interpretation of
somebody else’s work).
Referencing simply acknowledges the work of someone else.
Referencing allows the reader to trace your sources and read them for themselves.
Referencing demonstrates that you have undertaken research in the subject area which you
are studying.
Using someone else’s idea or quoting them without a reference can be described as
plagiarism. You are advised to always check with your tutors, Education Drop In Centre or
other member of academic staff if you are in any doubt when or what should be referenced.
There are two components to any referencing system: the reference that appears in the
text, and the list of references at the end. The reference that appears in the text will be a
brief annotation of its source. The reference that appears at the end gives the full reference
(see examples later) in a separate Reference section
The Reference section (sometimes referred to as a Bibliography) will contain an alphabetical
listing of all the references used (see examples later).
The difference between a Reference section and Bibliography is that the Reference section
contains all of the sources actually referred to in your work whilst a Bibliography may
contain sources from which you may have drawn ideas or inspirations which are not
necessarily referred to in your text.
During your studies you will probably come across several different conventions for
references and citations. The two most common are the Harvard system and the Vancouver
(or numeric) system. The Harvard System is the method of referencing that you must use
for all assignments submitted to the Business School.
You will find the “Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism” study skills in the Study Skills
organisation in Blackboard a useful and informative tool to refer to. This provides a series of
exercises for students who are less comfortable with using referencing and might be a useful
additional source for you to practice what you will read in this document.
How to Make a Citation using the Harvard system
The aim of this section is to give examples of the different ways in which you will use
include references in your work.
A single author.
Example: A recent study (Evans, 1981) suggested that…
If you refer to more than one author with the same surname, add their initials to
differentiate between them.
Example: (Jenkins, R. 1994) (Jenkins, D. 1997)
If the author(s) have published more than one cited document in the same year distinguish
between them by adding a, b, c, etc. after the year.
Example: (Jenkins, 1994a).
If there are two authors, the names of both are given.
Example: In a recent study (Hutson and Chapman, 1999) argued…
In a further report (Hutson and Jones, 2000) were able to
demonstrate that…
If there are more than two authors the surname of the first author alone is given, followed
by ‘et al’ (et al means and others.)
Example; In an earlier conference paper (Smith et al, 1996) claimed
If no author is given in the source then use ‘Anon’ (anonymous).
Example: (Anon. 1978)
[Please avoid this if it all possible!!]
If you refer to a source that is cited in another source you must cite both in the text. In the
Reference section you would only cite the piece of work that you have actually read.
Example: A study by Smith (1983, cited in Jones, 1997)
Wherever you quote material from a document you must show this clearly. You must cite it
correctly and also include the page number(s) of the quoted material.
You should make sure that all quotations are exact, even if this means reproducing spelling
mistakes or odd punctuation. Some authors may also use sexist pronouns. You may want to
deal with this by putting ‘(sic)’ after the offending word, to indicate that it is ‘as quoted’ and
not your error.
Quotations can be edited or ‘sharpened up’ to make a point more clearly. Any material left
out should be indicated by three dots in the text (…). If you need to add a word or two to a
quotation to make the sense clear, put these inside square brackets [ ].
Short Quotes
Up to two lines or less should be encompassed within the body of your work using double
quotation marks (“ “), followed by the reference/citation.
Contrary to the ‘storybook’ picture of science as a unified whole Kuhn argues that “…viewing
all fields [of science] together, it seems instead a rather ramshackle structure, with little
coherence among its various parts” (1970: 49). This view is…
Longer Quotes
More than two lines, should be set apart from the main text, indented and single line
spaced (i.e., with an extra margin at the left)
Indented quotations are not placed in quotation marks and the reference appears at the
…the social production of their life men (sic) enter into definite relations that are
indispensable and independent of their will, relations of production which
correspond to a definite stage of the development of their material forces.
The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of
society…(Marx, 1859: 38, cited in Hughes et al., 1995: 42).
You may need to cite sources other than academic books, journals and conference papers,
including official publications (UK Government, European Union, United Nations etc.), film,
video, tapes of broadcasts, unpublished material, or a thesis. For these you should follow the
general pattern of the examples given above when making the citation.
If the thesis is unpublished say it is unpublished in the Reference section. (Morgan, A. 2005,
title of work, University of… Unpublished)
If it is programme shown on tv then included the date time and channel on it was shown.
Web sources
As the content of websites changes and websites themselves can disappear without
warning, you should keep a paper copy of any website page you reference.
You should also be aware that web based sources have been known to offer generalisations
and sweeping assertion presented as facts with little or no evidence based research in
support. To rely on such a source for your work may undermine your entire effort. For
example the increase in use of Wikipedia or Business balls. The solution is to find yourself a
better more reliable source.
Treat web base sources with great care unless of course you are electronically accessing
reputable journals or databases.
Remember the purpose in quoting the source is so that the reader may find it for
themselves. Any help you can provide in this will be useful.
And don’t forget: the golden rule when referencing is to be consistent
Reference section
In the Harvard system all cited material is listed in alphabetical order at the end of the piece.
A sample is given below.
Tip: Full and systematic references are an essential part of a properly researched piece of
work. It will save time if you note all the details when you read or make notes on a text. (We
all find out the hard way what happens when we fail to record our references).
The development of a personal research log in which you can capture all of the relevant
source details in a word document or spreadsheet is a useful study skill to develop. It is
extremely time-consuming and frustrating to hunt down incomplete references later.
1 Reference to a book:
The references that you use in the text are annotated – short hand – versions. For your list of
references you must alphabetically list (by author surname) the full reference of all the
annotated references used in the text. The different sources of material that you reference
all have different ways of being presented. The main reference sources that you will
encounter and the way in which each is referenced properly, using Harvard, are described
below (if you encounter any others ask your tutor for advice).
▪ Book
Author(s), date, title, location of publication, publisher example;
Example – Jankowicz, A. (2006) Business Research Projects for Students. London. Chapman
▪ A chapter in an edited book
Some books are a collection of articles or chapters written on a particular theme by different
people. Such books may be referred to as ‘research monographs’ or ‘collections’ and will
always have been complied by an editor (ed.) or editors (eds.).
Author(s), date, ‘chapter title’, In, editor(s), date, book title, location, publisher and the
location of the source within the text (ie the page numbers) example.
Example – Raiden, A. Pye, M. and Cullinane, J, (2007) ‘The nature of the employment
relationship in the UK construction industry; a flexible construct?’ In Dainty A Green S and
Bagihole B (eds) People and culture in construction, Abingdon, Francis. pp39-55
All chapters, and the book itself, share the same date of publication.
2 Journal/magazine/newspaper
Author(s), date, ‘title’, journal, volume; issue number, page numbers.
Example – Morgan, A., Saunders, D. and Turner, D. (2004) ‘Community Consortia and Post compulsory education: a local approach to local problems’. Journal of Vocational Education
and Training. 56: 2, pp227-244.
beware!! Some journals use volume and number e.g. vol. 23 no. 4; whilst some just use a
slash or a colon (as in the above example) e.g. 15/4, or 15:4.
Choose one form and stick to it.
Magazines (and some journals) may just use a number with no volume number and some
may have an issue that reads Spring/Summer/Autumn etc. If this is the case use their
For newspaper replace the vol/no with the full date i.e. 24/09/01.
3 Conference paper
Author(s), date, ‘paper title’, conference, location, date
Example – Morgan, A., Naylor, G. and Raiden A. (2007) Unlocking the potential in
construction skills; the case of the mislaid key. The 8th International Conference on Human
Resource Development Research & Practice across Europe. Oxford Brookes University, 26-29
June, 2007.
Note: for all the above examples there is no underlining or use of italics. It is perfectly
acceptable to use underlining or italics of the relevant parts (Journal title or book title) if
requested to do so. The only hard and fast rule of thumb is to be consistent.
4 Website
See the note above
If you decide to use a web based source you will generally either be referencing an author’s
work from a website or the website itself. Frequently, authors’ work appearing on the web is
usually copied from other sources: would it be worth referring to the original source
Name, year of publication, title [online] url, [date you accessed it)
Examples Beckleheimer, J. (1994), How do you cite URL’s in a bibliography? [Online],
Available: bibliography.html [accessed 13/12/95]
Web page (no author)
Example – SSDA Annual Report 2006
(accessed 25/04/07)
Web page (no publication date)
Example – Prizker, T.J. n.d., An early fragment from central Nepal, [Online], Available: pritzker.html [accessed 12/12/2001].
Note that there are two sets of brackets in the above WWW references. The first one in
each reference denotes the source of your ref. i.e. on-line. The second denotes the date
at which YOU accessed the document.
Information is often put on the internet by organisations without citing a specific author. In
such cases, ascribe authorship to the smallest organisational unit that you can find (see
example). If you really are unable to find an author or owning organisation, yet you are sure
it is a credible source, it is possible to insert ‘anon’ (short for anonymous) in place of an
author, or use the web page’s title, as in the example. It is important that the reference in
the text matches that in the reference list.
In the text: (University of Sheffield Library, 2001)
In the reference list: University of Sheffield Library (2001) Nursing and Midwifery in the
Library and on the Internet. [online]. Sheffield, University of Sheffield. Available from: [Accessed 4th July 2001].
To cite a Web page within the text of an assignment, give the address of the site (e.g. To cite a document from a Web site you must follow the
author/date format. In both cases an entry will still be required in the reference list.
5 Unknown authors
Occasionally you may come across articles where you cannot identify the author (e.g. ‘by the
business reporter’ in a newspaper). In such a case simply use anon. instead of the author’s
name e.g. anon. (2000), and the same in the list of references.
6 Authors with more than one publication in a given year
Sometimes authors may well have produced two or more pieces of work within the same
year. If this is the case the normal referencing rules still apply, just add a letter after the
date. So if you have referenced Smith twice in your text for two different references from
the same year it would look like:
(Smith, 2000a) and (Smith, 2000b)
When it comes to including these in your reference list, list them alphabetically and then in
year order.
7 Multiple authors
Example- Loosemore, M., Dainty, A.R.J. and Lingard, H.J. (2003) Managing People in
Construction Projects; Strategic and Operational Approaches. London. Taylor and Francis.
et al is Latin for ‘and others’. All the names of the authors must be included in the list of
8 Electronic Journals
Whilst, perhaps the majority of the journal papers you use would have been sourced
electronically (i.e. via e-journals), you are advised to use the original journal reference rather
than the rather convoluted web address. Why needlessly complicate things!?
Example Reference list or Bibliography
Loosemore, M., Dainty, A.R.J. and Lingard, H.J. (2003) Managing People in Construction
Projects; Strategic and Operational Approaches. London. Taylor and Francis.
Majekodunmi, O. (2005) ‘Certificate of Disapproval’, Construction Manager; The Builder
Group, October 2005.
Morgan, A., Naylor, G. and Raiden A. (2007) Unlocking the potential in construction skills;
the case of the mislaid key. The 8th International Conference on Human Resource
Development Research & Practice across Europe. Oxford Brookes University 26-29th
Morgan, A., Saunders, D. and Turner, D. (2004) ‘Community Consortia and Post-compulsory
education: a local approach to local problems’. Journal of Vocational Education and Training.
56: 2, 227-244.
ONS (2005) ‘Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Statistics for the UK 2004’. Statistical
Press Release URN 05/92, Office for National Statistics
Raiden, A. Pye, M. and Cullinane, J, (2007) ‘The nature of the employment relationship in the
UK construction industry; a flexible construct?’ In Dainty A Green S and Bagihole B (eds)
People and culture in construction, Abingdon, Francis. pp39-55.
SSDA Annual Report 2006
(accessed 25/04/07)
Authors Acknowledgements
Arthur Morgan drew together the above from a variety of sources. Acknowledgement of
these sources is made here. If they are not included it is an error of omission and I apologise.
It was not intentional.
If this is the case and you would like your work to be acknowledged please let me know and I
will add it to the list.
LRC study guide referencing
The student drop in centre
MSc HRM scheme handbook edited by Arthur Morgan, 2004, 2005, 2006